NON-        Not

Nonchalant (adj) – Coolly unconcerned, indifferent, or unexcited; casual

Synonyms:  composed, dispassionate
Antonyms:  anxious
Sample Sentence: When playing the prank on their sister, the three kids tried their best to look nonchalant, even though they were obviously excited about the prank.

Nonentity (n) – 1. A person or thing of no importance  2. Something that does not exist, or exists only in imagination

Sample Sentence: When his coach had forgotten to mention him at the end-of-season banquet, Frank felt like a complete nonentity.


BREV-     Short

Abbreviate (v) – 1. To shorten a word or phrase by omitting letters, substituting shorter forms, etc.  2. To reduce anything in length

Synonyms:  condense, truncate
Antonyms: expand
Sample Sentence: When giving a speech at a wedding, it’s a good idea to abbreviate your stories, because nobody wants to listen to a long speech at a wedding.

Brevity (n) – 1. Shortness of time or duration; briefness  2. The quality of being expressing much in few words; terseness

Synonyms:  1. transience  2. succinctness
Antonyms:  1. permanence  2. verbosity
You May Remember: The -ITY ending from the last unit, so Brevity literally means “The quality of being short” (or … shortness)
Sample Sentence: The six-line poem was remarkable because of how much it managed to say, despite its brevity.


AB-     Away From

Abnormality (n) – 1. An abnormal condition, state, or quality 2. An abnormal thing or event

Synonyms:  1. irregularity, deviation 2. anomaly, aberration
You May Remember: Here’s another -ITY ending – so this word means “Away From  being normal”
Sample Sentence: The security guard was trained to notice any abnormality in the area around the factory, like an unclosed door or an unusual car parked near the entrance.

Abstain (v) – 1. To hold oneself back voluntarily, especially from something regarded as improper or unhealthy  2. To refrain from casting a vote

Synonyms:  renounce, eschew
Antonyms:  indulge in
Sample Sentence: Not liking either candidate, Vivek abstained from casting his vote for either one.


ARCH-     Chief, Leader

Archetype (n) – The original pattern or model from which all things of the same kind are copied or on which they are based; a perfect example of something

Synonyms:  prototype, embodiment, representative, essence
Helpful Hint: Character “types” that reappear in different works of literature are considered archetypes: the superhero, the supervillain, the evil stepmother, the good fairy, etc. They are models or patterns that are copied throughout literature. Additionally, archetype can refer to the actual first model of something, as in the first computer was the archetype for all others. 
With the pronunciation, the beginning of the word is identical to the beginning of “architect” – in this case, it isn’t pronounced like “arch.”
Sample Sentence: So many love stories seem to resemble Romeo and Juliet that it’s safe to call Shakespeare’s play the archetype for all stories about doomed love.

Archrival
(n) – A primary opponent, a #1 enemy

Synonyms:  archenemy, nemesis
Sample Sentence:
The loss stung even more because they were defeated by their archival, whom they hated more than any other team in the league.


BI-    Two

Bilingual (adj) – Able to communicate in two languages

Sample Sentence: Robert was incredibly helpful on his trip to South America, as he was bilingual and able to help his American friends communicate with the locals.

Bipartisan (adj) – 1. Representing two political groups or factions  2. Unbiased

Helpful Hint: When you hear people talk about bipartisan politics in American government, that implies support from both Republicans and Democrats. Furthermore, the issue is not biased by right-wing or left-wing beliefs.
Sample Sentence: Because of the Republicans’ desire to bring jobs to America, and the Democrats’ efforts to reduce pollution, the senators wrote a bipartisan bill to encourage the construction of factories for electrical automobiles.


ANN / ENNI-    Year

Centennial (adj) – Pertaining to, or marking the completion of 100 years

Sample Sentence: On his centennial birthday, his children purchased a cake and decorated it with 100 candles.

Perennial (adj) – 1. Lasting for an indefinitely long time; enduring  2. (of plants) having a life cycle lasting more than two years

Synonyms:  continuing, persisting, perpetual
Sample Sentence: Tulips are perennial plants; you do not have to replant them every year.


VERT / VERS     Turn

Convergence (n) – An act or instance of meeting at a point or line

Synonyms: meeting, conjunction, confluence
Antonyms: separation, divergence
Sample Sentence: When the director posted the cast list for the play, it caused a mad convergence of actors clumped around the piece of paper, trying to see who had been cast for which roles.

Subversive (adj) – Tending to undermine the principles of, especially in attempt to overthrow an established government

Synonyms:  disruptive, revolutionary, seditious
Sample Sentence: Jeanette was criticized for being subversive when she kept making negative comments about her boss behind her back, hoping to get people to become more bitter about their work.


VOC        Call

Invocation (n) – The act of calling upon a deity, spirit, etc. for aid or protection

Sample Sentence: In her later years, she began whispering soft invocations to the gods whenever life threw another obstacle her way.

Provocative (adj) – Tending or serving to stir up or arouse (feelings, desires or activities)

Synonyms:  controversial, aggravating, inflammatory
Helpful Hints: Provocative can also be used to describe something “sexy” or “suggestive”; her provocative purple lipstick enticed me.

You May Remember: From the last unit, PRO- meaning “Forward” – so to provoke someone is to “call him forward” or call him out. A provocative comment calls us out from our routine
Sample Sentence: Some people thought the novel was too provocative, because it shook them out of their comfort zone.

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