-ISM     Belief

Altruism (n) – Unselfish concern for others

Synonyms: humanity, selflessness
Antonyms: Selfishness,  egotism
Sample Sentence: He was always generous, but his greatest moments of altruism always came with the large donations that he would send to help with relief from natural disasters.

Jingoism (n) – Aggressive, warlike patriotism

Synonyms: nationalism, chauvinism, xenophobia 
Helpful Hints: This word carries a negative connotation – being patriotic is a point of pride, being jingoistic is being closed-minded
Sample Sentence: The political campaign rally quickly devolved from a discussion about policies into incoherent slogans about pro-American jingoism.


AUD      Sound

Audacious (adj) – Extremely daring, boldly in defiance of convention

Synonyms: bold, risky
Antonyms: cautious, prudent
Helpful Hints: Think of Tybalt in Romeo and Juliet going against Capulet and the Prince’s orders.
You May Remember: Convention, from Unit 6, can mean an “accepted rule or practice.” To be audacious is to defy traditional rules.
Sample Sentence: When Janelle began to stand on her head and curse at the administration during her student council speech, it might not have earned her too many votes, but it was certainly audacious.

Auditory (adj) – Pertaining to hearing

Synonyms: hearing, aural
Sample Sentence: If not for the auditory testing at my middle school, I might not have ever noticed how poor my hearing had become.

-NESS     State of Being

Boorishness (n) – Crudeness, insensitivity

Synonyms: vulgarity, incivility
Antonyms: propriety, civility
Helpful Hints: Gaston from Beauty and the Beast.
Sample Sentence: The season ticket holders at the opera were dismayed at the boorishness of the man seated in front of them; he never took off his trucker hat and ate Doritos during the show.

Furtiveness (n) – Stealthiness, Secretivity

Synonyms: stealthiness, slyness
Antonyms:  frankness, candidness
Sample Sentence: She could tell by his furtiveness that he wasn’t telling her the complete story.


-IST       One Who…

Conformist (n) – A person who unquestioningly follows a group

Synonyms: follower, traditionalist
Antonyms: rebel, maverick
You May Remember: CON- from unit 5 means “With” – so a conformist is “one who forms with others”
Sample Sentence: Smith was a conformist, always reading the books that everyone else was reading, listening to popular music, just so he wouldn’t feel left out.

Revisionist (n) – An advocate of revising, especially with religious or political belief

Helpful Hints: This often carries a negative connotation, suggesting someone who wants to alter the past to his own benefit
Sample Sentence: The priests were tired of the status quo, and their more progressive beliefs about ancient religious rules caused some to see them as revisionists.

LOG / LOQU       Speak

Eloquent (adj) – Having the ability to speak fluently and gracefully

Synonyms: fluent, expressive, articulate
Antonyms: dull, inarticulate
Sample Sentence: When their son brought his fiancée over for dinner, they were impressed with the young woman’s eloquence as she described her life goals and philosophy.

Loquacious (adj) – Excessively talkative

Synonyms: chatty,  verbose, garrulous
Antonyms: quiet, restrained, subdued
Sample Sentence: When she became nervous, she would always become more loquacious, often restating the same thing three or four times in a row.


INTRA-     Within

Intramural (adj) – Involving only students at the same school

Synonyms: domestic, internal
Helpful Hints: Our annual volleyball tournament is an intramural event – it is open solely to BHS students
Sample Sentence: BHS ought to have an intramural basketball league, in which Burlington kids play against other Burlington kids.

Intrinsic (adj) – Belonging to a thing by its very nature

Synonyms: essential, inherent, fundamental
Antonyms:learned, external, extrinsic
Helpful Hints: A photograph is intrinsically worthless – the ink and paper that made it cost nearly nothing – but it can be immensely valuable on a personal level
Sample Sentence: The interviewer asked questions that he hoped would give insight into the applicants’ intrinsic qualities, like their integrity, honesty, and self-esteem.


LEG / LECT       Read, Choose

Legislation (n) – 1. The act of making laws  2. A law, or a body of laws

Synonyms: 2. laws, rulings, regulations,  ordinances
Sample Sentence: Despite the new legislation outlawing the use of Google Glass while driving, the number of accidents caused by the device remained high.

Legitimize (v) – To make lawful or standard

Synonyms: legalize, authorize
Antonyms: disapprove, outlaw
Sample Sentence: When Prohibition was lifted, it legitimized the sale of alcohol in the United States.

MORPH      Form, Shape

Metamorphosis (n) – A complete change of form or substance; a transformation

Synonyms: alteration, conversion, transfiguration
Antonyms: stagnation
Helpful Hints: The Mighty Morphin’ Power Rangers changed their form completely when changing into a supreme fighting force
Sample Sentence: The months out in the country caused a full metamorphosis in Isabella, who returned to the city looking younger, happier, and in better shape.

Amorphous (adj) – 1. Shapeless  2. Having no structure or organization

Synonyms: formless, structureless
You May Remember: A-/AN- from unit 1 means “not / without” – and with the adjective ending -OUS, this word means “without a shape”
Sample Sentence: The child pointed to the amorphous blob that he had drawn and asked his father, “Do you see what I made?” The father asked, “Is it a cat?”


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